Unlike the rest of the process industries where the inputs and outputs to the process are largely known, oil and gas production comes from unseen reservoirs. Reservoir models are built by geologists from numerous sources—log data, lab data, seismic data, outcrop data, etc.
Emerson’s Tor Barkve, a Technical Product Manger in the Roxar Software Solutions business unit, has written a whitepaper, Honoring Geology in Flow Simulation Models (registration required). He shares how to build and upscale representative flow models to support decision making in the management of the producing oil & gas field.
A second whitepaper, 5 Benefits Operators Expect from Their Reservoir Models (reg. req’d), by Emerson’s Tyson Bridger, Garrett Leahy & Tone Kråkenes describes how through a model driven interpretation workflow, operators can squeeze maximum value from their reservoir models and realize:
- a more complete representation of the data
- early estimates of reservoir volumes
- risk estimates for drilling decisions
- enhanced productivity
- improved decision-making across the reservoir management lifecycle.
RMS 2013 unites the geophysicist and the geologist on a common platform to unlock the value of the geologic models.
Model driven interpretation is a key part of the latest release, RMS 2013 reservoir management software
. This model driven interpretation provides geologists and geophysicists the ability to set and collect uncertainty information associated with an interpretation, easily and reversibly test geologic hypotheses, and the ability to put detail in the model where the data require it. Continue Reading ▶
Process manufacturers with hazardous areas in their process are responsible for the safety of the process through the IEC 61511 safety lifecycle—from initial design through decommissioning.
Flame monitoring is often an important component in risk mitigation. Emerson’s Jonathan Saint wrote a Petroleum Review article, Minimising false alarms, to address this major challenge with flame detection systems. Jonathan stresses the importance of selecting the right flame-detection technology with your application and provides some important considerations in the article.
He opens describing key flame detection technologies:
Optical systems such as ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are the methods that most flame detectors use to perform their function. Almost all flames produce heat, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, carbon and other products of combustion, which emit visible and measurable UV and IR radiation.
The issue is when non-flame sources trip the sensors to produce false alarms. Jonathan highlights several application examples. For flame detection in outdoor applications, the flame detector technology: Continue Reading ▶
When it comes to measuring levels in vessels, guided wave radar (GWR) technology has many advantages, which includes having no moving parts to minimize maintenance costs. In a Process Worldwide article, How to Get the Best from GWR, Emerson’s Phil Lever provides some installation tips to help ensure accuracy and reliability.
He describes GWR’s theory of operation [hyperlink added]:
A low energy pulse of microwaves is sent down the probe that is reflected back when the pulse reaches the media surface. The transmitter measures the time taken for the pulse to reach the media surface and be reflected back with an on-board microprocessor that accurately calculates the distance to the media surface using ‘time-of-flight‘ principles.
Each peak of the ‘echo curve’ corresponds to a reflection of the signal: The ‘Reference’ pulse is caused by the transition between transmitter head and probe. A further peak is caused by a reflection on the product surface.
Some of the installation considerations that may impact GWR level measurement include the mechanical installation, the process media being measured, and electromechanical noise. One of the first steps is to configure the transmitter by viewing the echo curve. Peaks in the curve correspond to:
…a reflection of the radar signal (e.g. the surface of the level or interface, an obstacle, or something else).
Threshold settings on some GWR transmitters such as the Rosemount 3300 and 5300 and wireless Rosemount 3308 devices can be adjusted to block out noise impacting the measurement. Enhanced electronics are also available for weak surface pulses from applications with a:
…long measuring range or if the products have very poor reflectivity (low dielectric constant)…
Phil notes that mechanical noise can pose issues. Continue Reading ▶
Source: Wikipedia, The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth By Jennie A. Brownscombe (1914)
Just a short programming note that no more posts will happen the rest of the week as I observe the Thanksgiving holiday here in the U.S.
For those in the U.S., give thanks and enjoy your holidays. For everyone else, enjoy the rest of your week!
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